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An Overview of Female Sexual Dysfunction

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Sexual health—and sexual function—depend on a variety of factors. What one person is satisfied with sexually, another finds deeply problematic. The amount of libido that a person has in one relationship may be quite different than the amount of libido they have in another relationship. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as a state of physical, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. It necessitates a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Desire is the experience of being interested in having sex.

  • Orgasm is a time of release. There may be contractions in the vagina or other feelings of dropping over a physical or emotional edge. Some women may experience multiple orgasms, going back and forth from orgasm to plateau.
  • Resolution is when the body returns to its usual, un-aroused state. Blood flow returns to common. Many people feel very relaxed at this time.
  • Excitement is when the body becomes physically aroused. There is an increase in blood flow to the genitals. The nipples and labia may engorge. There is some degree of lubrication. The sensitivity of the genitals increases.
  • Plateau occurs when the body is already excited, but a woman does not yet anticipate an orgasm.


The symptoms of female sexual dysfunction vary depending on which specific type of dysfunction a woman is experiencing.

Desire Phase Difficulties

There are several types of sexual dysfunction that can occur during the desire phase. The most common is decreased sexual desire or loss of sexual desire. This is when a woman has less (or no) interest in having sexual interactions. She may still be able to enjoy those interactions, but she is less likely to initiate sex. This is also referred to as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).



An Overview of Work Anxiety

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Work anxiety refers to stress reason by work that leads to anxiety, or the impact of an anxiety disorder at work. Either way, work anxiety can have negative effects and must be addressed to prevent poor outcomes both for employees and organizations.

Signs of Work Anxiety

  • shaking or trembling
  • dry mouth
  • sweating
  • a pounding/racing heart
  • exaggerated startle reaction
  • feeling jittery
  • tiredness or fatigue
  • feeling like there’s a lump in your throat

Causes of Work Anxiety

Work anxiety may be caused by a variety of characteristics of the work environment. It’s not at all unusual for certain major events to make you nervous or feel temporary moments of anxiety. For example, starting a new job or leaving an old one is sure to make anyone feel skittish. You spend so much time at work that if things aren’t going your way, it can feel overwhelming at times.

  • a workload that is overly high
  • lack of direction on tasks
  • lack of perception of fairness
  • lack of control over the work environment
  • dealing with work conflicts
  • meeting deadlines
  • relationships with coworkers
  • managing staff
  • long working hours
  • having a demanding boss

Effects of Work Anxiety

If you are living with work anxiety, it has probably taken a toll on multiple aspects of your life. Below are some of the most common effects of work anxiety, which can happen both within and outside the workplace:

  • effects on personal life
  • reduced job performance and quality of work
  • effects on relationships with coworkers and superiors
  • effects on your relationship with your romantic partner
  • problems with concentration, fatigue, irritability, reduced productivity

Coping With Work Anxiety

Finally, you may be looking for common tips on how to cope with work anxiety. Know that anxiety at work can be contagious, and try to stay away from people who make you feel worse, as much as possible.


Panic Attacks Can Occur in Your Sleep

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Panic attacks are often experienced as overwhelming feelings of fear and dread. These attacks are often characterized by uncomfortable physical sensations, disturbing thoughts, and difficult emotions. For example, when panic strikes, a person may start off suddenly feeling very nervous and anxious. Somatic sensations, such as sweating, heart palpitations, and chest pain may begin to take hold. Strong emotions combined with troublesome physical sensations may contribute to fears felt by the panic sufferer, such as a fear that the attack will lead to a loss of control over oneself.

Even though panic attack symptoms typically reach a peak within 10 minutes before gradually subsiding, the effects of the attack can impact the person much longer. Many panic attack sufferers frequently describe their symptoms as an upsetting and even downright terrifying experience.

Panic Attack Symptoms

Panic attacks typically start off with feelings of fear, anxiety, and apprehension, accompanied by a combination of 4 or more of the following symptoms:

Heart palpitations or accelerated heart rate

  • Nausea or abdominal pain
  • Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
  • Derealization or depersonalization
  • Fear of losing control or going crazy
  • Fear of dying
  • Feelings of numbness or tingling sensations
  • Chills or hot flushes
  • Excessive sweating
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling of choking
  • Chest pain


Panic attacks are most usually associated with panic disorder but have also been known to occur along with other mental health disorders, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, agoraphobia, and other specific phobias.

Additionally, there are two different types of panic attacks: expected and unexpected. Expected panic attacks are those that are triggered by some type of cue or stimulus in the environment. For example, a person with a fear of heights (acrophobia) may have a panic attack when in an airplane or when on a top floor of a tall building. A person with PTSD may have a panic attack when in an environment that reminds her of the past traumatic event.

Unexpected panic attacks, on the other hand, or those that arise suddenly without any known reason or trigger. Since these attacks happen out-of-the-blue, they can be perceived of as extremely frightening.

Nocturnal Panic Attacks

Panic attack symptoms typically take hold while one is awake, however, it is possible for panic attacks to strike while you are fast asleep. Known as nocturnal panic attacks, these attacks can potentially contribute to sleep disorders and leave you feeling tired throughout your day.

All panic attacks can be perceived of as a frightening experiencing but can be even more terrifying if they startle you out of your sleep. For example, you may wake up due to uncomfortable physical sensations, such as shaking, accelerated heart rate, and chest pain. You may feel confused as to whether you are dreaming or not, feeling a sense of distance from yourself and your sense of reality.


An Overview of Schizoaffective Disorder

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Schizoaffective disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that combines symptoms of psychosis with symptoms of mood disorders. Depending on what type of mood symptoms are present; it is diagnosed as either bipolar type or depressive type.

The prevalence of the schizoaffective disorder in the population is believed to be less than 1 percent, which is less than for schizophrenia or mood disorders. Research suggests that women are slightly more prone while men tend to develop the disorder at a younger age. It is generally first diagnosed between ages 16 and 30 and is rare in children.

Symptoms of the schizoaffective disorder tend to be severe and vary for each individual. They can be broadly categorized into those that fall under depressive symptoms, manic symptoms, and schizophrenia symptoms. Those with bipolar type will experience cycling of depressive and manic symptoms, while those with the depressive type will only experience the depressive symptoms

Depressive Symptoms
Psychological: Sadness, worthlessness, hopelessness, restlessness, lack of energy, loss of interest in usual activities, trouble concentrating, guilt, self-blame, thoughts of death or suicide

Physical: Poor appetite, weight loss or gain, sleeping too much or too little,


Psychological: Risky or self-destructive behavior (e.g., spending sprees, reckless driving, risky sexual practices), euphoria, irritable mood, racing thoughts, grandiose, easily distracted

Physical: Increased energy and/or more active than usual (e.g., at work, socially, sexually), talking more or faster than unusual, reduced need for sleep

Psychotic Symptoms

Psychological: Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, impaired communication, lacking emotion in facial expressions and speech (negative symptoms), low motivation (avolition)

Physical: slow movements or no movement (catatonia), poor personal hygiene

While the psychotic symptoms listed above describe how schizoaffective disorder appears to an outsider, it is also helpful to learn what these symptoms feel like to a person with the disorder.

Disorganized Thinking

If you are experiencing disorganized thinking, you may feel like your thoughts are fuzzy or everything feels disconnected. When you speak, you may not be capable to remember what you were talking about, so it’s hard for people to follow what you say. You may also feel like your thoughts are not within your control.


We don’t know precisely what Reason schizoaffective disorder. However, it is proposed that it can result from a combination of risk factors that affect brain development prenatally and throughout childhood and adolescence. This includes:

  • Psychoactive or psychotropic drug use (e.g., LSD)
  • Viral infections including while in the womb
  • Birth defects
  • Genetics
  • Brain chemistry and structure
  • Life stressors (death in the family, loss of a job, end of the marriage)




How Sleep and Bipolar Disorder Interact

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Bipolar Disorder, Depression, and Sleep Problems

Sleep disorders are very public in people with bipolar disorder and appear to play a significant role in the cycling of the disorder.

Insomnia – Insomnia is a disorder which contains not only difficulty in falling asleep, but difficulties staying asleep or getting too little sleep. Insomnia is common with many physical and mental health situations. In those with bipolar disorder, hypomania can often lead to insomnia due to hyperarousal. When this happens, treatment of the underlying condition (hypomania or mania due to bipolar disorder) is a goal of treatment.

Delayed sleep phase syndrome – Delayed sleep phase syndrome is a common circadian rhythm disturbance. Common in people with depression, several of the medications used to treat bipolar disorder can lead to delayed sleep phase syndrome. Treatment may contain a combination of chronotherapy, light therapy, and/or melatonin.

Irregular sleep-wake schedule – When people with bipolar disorder have a lack of routine—such as those who are addicted to alcohol or drugs and are awake at night and sleep during the day—the irregular cycle can greatly interfere with appropriate treatment of the disorder. Treatment focuses on treating the cause which keeps them up at night.

Nightmares – Vivid dreams, nightmares, and night terrors may also affect people with bipolar disorder. As with insomnia, the goal of treatment is to best treat the underlying bipolar disorder.

Sleep as a Precipitant of Mania with Bipolar Disorder

What may surprise you is that reduced sleep isn’t just a symptom of mania—a short night can actually precipitate manic and hypomanic episodes.

“Social rhythm disruption” is some disturbance in routine affecting the sleep/wake cycle; it can be as simple as staying up extra late to watch a movie on television or getting wrapped up in an interesting online chat session, or as serious as being unable to sleep due to a family member’s serious illness or death.

Could Sleep Disorders Actually Lead to Bipolar Disorder?

Some scientists believe that the cause the incidence of bipolar disorder has risen in modern times is the development of bright artificial light. Once upon a time, most people’s sleep/wake cycles were regulated by the sun. The artificial light changed all that and made it more likely that people who have a genetic predisposition toward bipolar disorder would actually develop the situation.

While a causal relationship hasn’t been proven, sleep disturbances in people with bipolar disorder have also been linked with changes in the microstructure of the white matter of the brain.

How to Cope

Just as sleep disorders due to bipolar disorder need to be addressed (see above,) those which could worsen bipolar disorder need to be addressed as well.

If you’re suffering from insomnia, good sleep hygiene is critical. Experts recommend that you:

Go to bed and get up at the same time every day

Avoid naps, especially naps in the late afternoon. If you must nap, try to limit your rest to around one hour.

Avoid heavy meals a few hours before retiring.

If you can’t sleep after a certain amount of time (for example, 15 minutes) get out of bed and do something. It’ still significant to get up at your regular time the next morning, even if you will have less than seven hours of sleep.

If you are coping with hypersomnia (sleeping too much,) it’s often advised that you gradually reduce the amount of time you spend sleeping by using an alarm clock.

Bottom Line

If you or a loved one suffer from any type of mood disorder, pay attention to the sleep/wake patterns of the person involved. If you identify insomnia, hypersomnia, poor-quality sleep and/or reduced essential for sleep, this should be brought to your/your loved one’s doctor’s attention right away.


Do You Know the Warning Signs of Depression?

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While only a qualified medical or mental health provider can diagnose depression, there are certain warning signs that can help you identify whether you or someone you care about may be depressed.

Depression looks a little different in different people, however. So while one individual may struggle to get out of bed due to depression, someone else might be able to go to work every day without co-workers noticing that he’s depressed.

The two most common types contain major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder.

The good news is, depression is treatable. If you recognize signs that you or someone you may know be depressed, professional help may be warranted. Medication, talk therapy, or a combination of the two could be instrumental in reducing depressive symptoms.

Decreased Interest or Pleasure

The second core symptom of major depressive disorder is a reduce interest or pleasure in things that were once enjoyed. A person exhibiting this symptom will show markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, daily activities.

Low Mood

Depressed mood is consistent with both major depression and persistent depressive disorder. In major depression, an individual must feel depressed most of the day, nearly every day, as shown by either subjective report or observations made by others. Children or adolescents may appear more irritable than sad. Children may appear more irritable than depressed and they must experience it more days than not for at least one year.

Sleep Disturbances

Sleep disturbances including complexity falling asleep, staying asleep, feeling sleepy despite a full night’s rest or daytime sleepiness can indicate either major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder.


A loss of energy and chronic feelings of fatigue can be symptoms of both persistent depressive disorder and major depressive disorder. Feeling tired most of the time can interfere with an individual’s capability to function usually.

Feelings of Worthlessness or Guilt

Excessive, inappropriate guilt and feelings of worthlessness are general symptoms of major depressive disorder. The feelings of guilt may be so severe they become delusional.

Difficulty Concentrating

Both major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder involve difficulty concentrating and making decisions. Individuals with depression may recognize this in themselves or others around them may notice that they’re struggling to think visibly.


How can you help someone during a manic episode?

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During a manic episode, a person will experience feelings of high energy, creativity, and possibly joy. They’ll talk very rapidly, get very little sleep, and may act hyperactively. They may also feel invincible, which can lead to risk-taking behaviours.

Symptoms of a manic episode

Some common symptoms of a manic episode include:

  • an unusually “high” or optimistic attitude
  • extreme irritability
  • unreasonable ideas about one’s skills or power — they may criticize partners or family members for not being as “accomplished” as they perceive themselves to be
  • abundant energy
  • racing thoughts that jump between different ideas
  • being simply distracted
  • trouble concentrating
  • impulsiveness and poor judgment
  • reckless behaviour with no thought about consequences
  • delusions and hallucinations (less common)

During these episodes, a person with bipolar disorder may act recklessly. Sometimes they go as far as endangering their own life or the lives of people around them. Remember that this person can’t fully control their actions during episodes of mania. Therefore, it’s not always an option to try to cause with them to try to stop behaving a certain way.

Warning signs of a manic episode

It can be helpful to keep an eye out for the warning signs of a manic episode so that you can react accordingly. People with bipolar disorder may show different symptoms, but some common warning signs include:

  • a very sudden lift in mood
  • an unrealistic sense of optimism
  • sudden impatience and irritability
  • a surge in energy and talkativeness
  • an expression of unreasonable ideas
  • spending money in reckless or irresponsible ways

How to help during a manic episode

How to react depends on the severity of the person’s manic episode. In some cases, doctors may recommend that the person rise their medication, take a different medication, or even be brought to the hospital for treatment. Keep in mind that convincing your loved one to go to the hospital may not be easy. This is because they feel really good during these periods and are convinced that nothing is wrong with them.

In general, try to avoid entertaining any grand or unrealistic ideas from your loved one, as this may increase their likelihood to engage in risky behaviour. Talk calmly to the person and encourage them to contact their medical provider to discuss the changes in their symptoms.

Taking care of yourself

Some people find that living with a person with a chronic mental health condition like bipolar disorder can be hard. Negative behaviours exhibited by someone who is manic are often focused on those closest to them.


Dr. Manish Borasi General Secretary Indian Psychiatric Society Madhya Pradesh Branch at MP PSYCON-2019 Ujjain.

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Indian Psychiatric Society Madhya Pradesh Branch held its annual conference “MP-PSYCON-2019” at Ujjain on 29th & 30 June 2019. This year’s conference featured the theme on “Addiction Corridors of Substance Use – Reward to Reprimand” and drew over 80 psychiatrists & post-graduate scholars from whole Madhya Pradesh to present their research papers and participate in theme-related presentations in a total of six sessions.

For more details visit the link.


Tips to Keep Your Anger Under Control

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Anger is an ordinary, healthy emotion. But it’s harmful when it shoots up all the time or goes out of control. Constant, volatile anger has grave consequences for your personal relations, work associations, health, and mental state. The good news is that keeping anger under control is simpler than you think.

But while anger might be inevitable, the way you express it isn’t. Letting anger take control and boil over isn’t a smart idea. The truth is, losing control generally causes far more harm than good.

1: Step away for a moment

Anger can be hard to control when it first bubbles up. If you have a tendency to explode, excusing yourself for a moment is the best approach. Then, take 5 to 10 deep breaths to relax before returning. People may wonder why you walked away, but it’s a lot better than saying something you’d regret later.

2: Understand your anger

Being rational and feeling angry rarely go hand in hand, but take a moment to think about why you feel anger. Sometimes it’s because of the way you see a condition and not a problem with someone else. In fact, the other person may not be trying to anger or insult you at all. It might just seem that way.

 3: Find humor in the situation

If you’re working yourself into a fury, try to shift your thoughts to something funny. Nothing can calm a crisis like humor. It might just put the condition into perspective and help you realize that it’s not that big a deal.

4:Take a Time to Think

It is easy to blurt out the first thing that comes in your mind in the height of your situation. Unfortunately, these may result in harsh words being said and feelings getting hurt. When you recognize that a situation is starting to make you angry, take a moment to collect your thoughts before speaking.

A few deep breaths can help you calm down and think rationally in the heat of the situation. Sometimes being aware of your own breathing can help you focus. Moreover, there are some great breathing techniques that can specifically help you calm down

5: Search for healthier ways to communicate your anger

If you’re certain that the condition is worth getting angry on and there’s anything you can do to make it better, the solution is to put across your feelings in a healthy way. When communicated considerately and channeled well, anger can be a wonderful source of energy and motivation for change.

 6: Never hit your children in anger—or at all

Put your hands in your pockets if you feel the urge. Model the kind of behavior you’d like to see. Hitting your child will teach him or her that might makes right and that violence is the way to solve conflicts. It will encourage fighting and other aggressive behavior. Telling your child calmly what you want to do and use specific directions. Showing him that you can control your temper will help your child learn how to control his.

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Dr. Manish Borasi is Best Psychiatrist in Bhopal. Dr. Manish Borasi is psychiatrist and psychotherapist at Dr. Manish Borasi Serenity Neuropsychiatry Clinic. Dr.Manish Borasi Serenity Neuropsychiatry Clinic offering best psychiatrist and psychotherapist treatment services.

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