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Are ADD and ADHD the Same Condition?

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You may have heard the terms ADD and ADHD used interchangeably. Attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are indeed the same situations; it’s just that ADHD has had several name changes in the last three decades. This is because as more research is carried out, understanding grows and the name has been changed to reflect that knowledge.

This situation is sometimes called attention deficit disorder (ADD), but this is an outdated term. The term was once used to refer to someone who had trouble focusing but was not hyperactive. The DSM-5 changed the criteria to diagnose someone with ADHD.

A Brief Timeline of the Changing Name of ADHD

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association. It’s the standard guideline that doctors, mental health professionals, and clinicians use when they’re assessing and diagnosing ADHD and other mental health issues.

Each new update and revision of the DSM is eagerly anticipated, as it can mean a big or small change in what each situation is called, and in the criteria for diagnosing them, including ADHD.

Using the Term ADD

You can still use the term ADD and people will almost certainly understand you. Many doctors, clinicians, and writers use ADD to mean inattentiveness and use ADHD to describe someone with hyperactivity. Some people use ADD and ADHD interchangeably. However, if you can make the mental switch from ADD to ADHD, it will help avoid potential confusion and keep you up-to-date with the most current terms.

Types of ADHD

There are three types of ADHD:

  1. Inattentive

Inattentive ADHD is what’s generally meant when someone uses the term ADD. This means a person shows enough symptoms of inattention (or easy distractibility) but isn’t hyperactive or impulsive.

  1. Hyperactive/impulsive

This typically occurs when a person has symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity but not inattention.

  1. Combined

Combined ADHD is when a person has symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

The Hyperactivity Component

Many people with inattentive ADHD feel that using hyperactivity in the name of the situation they have misrepresents their struggles. Often when laypeople hear ADHD, they automatically think “hyperactivity” and they don’t understand the subtleties of the different presentations. Of course, you don’t have to share your diagnosis with anyone, but if you choose to, you can elaborate a little and explain that it’s inattentive ADHD, which helps clarification straight away.

Many adults with hyperactive-impulsive ADHD don’t feel that the “H” correctly describes them either. When we think of hyperactivity, a child who is very physically active and not capable to sit still in class comes to mind.



Are You Afraid of Being in Public?

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Agoraphobia is often misunderstood as being primarily a problem in which people are afraid to leave their houses. Let’s take a look at accurately what agoraphobia is, and using this more accurate definition, the specific behaviors that suggest a person may have agoraphobia.

Agoraphobia Is a Phobia

It may sound redundant to state that agoraphobia is a phobia, yet understanding agoraphobia as a specific type of phobia, makes it much easier to understand the symptoms.

Agoraphobia is often misunderstood to be simply a fear of leaving home; however, this is not quite accurate. Agoraphobia is a phobia of being in a condition where escape would be difficult or impossible, or help would be unavailable if a panic attack should happen.

What Is a Phobia?

A phobia is an overwhelming and unreasonable fear of an object or condition that poses little real danger but provokes anxiety and avoidance. Unlike the brief anxiety most people feel when they give a speech or take a test, a phobia is long-lasting, causes intense physical and psychological reactions, and can affect your capability to function usually at work or in social settings.

Phobias are divided into three main categories:

Social phobia- More than just shyness, social phobia involves a combination of excessive self-consciousness and a fear of public scrutiny or humiliation in common social conditions. In social situations, the person fears being rejected or negatively evaluated or fears offending others.

Specific phobias– A specific phobia involves an irrational, persistent fear of a specific object or situation that’s out of proportion to the actual risk. This includes a fear of situation (such as airplanes or enclosed spaces); nature (such as thunderstorms or heights); animals or insects (such as dogs or spiders); blood, injection or injury (such as knives or medical procedures); or other phobias (such as loud noises or clowns). There are many other types of specific phobias. It’s not unusual to experience phobias about more than one object or condition.

Fear of open spaces (agoraphobia) – Agoraphobia is a fear of an actual or anticipated situation, such as using public transportation, being in open or enclosed spaces, standing in line or being in a crowd, or being outside the home alone. The anxiety is caused by fearing no easy means of escape or help if intense anxiety develops.

Essentially a Fear of Panic Attacks

Agoraphobia is often a progressive phobia, and may eventually lead to a fear of leaving the house. However, it is the panic attack, rather than the act of being in public, that is the reason for the fear.

Specific Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of agoraphobia may include:

Panicked feelings: Agoraphobia can become a self-replicating cycle. The sufferer is anxious about having a panic attack which can, in turn, lead to a panic attack. With time, the specific condition which could lead to a panic simplify, leading to a further sense of anxiety, and on and on.

Avoidant behavior: Limiting life activities in an effort to avoid situations where help for a panic attack may not be available is referred to as avoidant behaviors. What initially may be a fear of a panic attack in one specific situation can slowly generalize, sequentially isolating a person.

Clustering: A pattern of the avoided condition is usually present. Common clusters include public transportation; shopping; driving; and leaving home. While early on in the condition, symptoms may cluster around only one of these common “open spaces fears,” with time, anxiety in others often develops as well.

It can be easier to understand the symptoms of agoraphobia if you recognize that the primary fear is of having a panic attack, rather than a specific condition. Hence, anything which could precipitate a panic attack, such as finding yourself in a place in which escape could be difficult, could lead to symptoms.


4 Tips to Help You Quit Your Cell Phone Addiction

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Cell phone addiction may not be properly recognized, but for many people, the thought of not having their cell phone is impossible. As we become more and more dependent on cell phones to connect with others, organize our time, and track down information, it can seem hard to cope without it.

For many people, looking at their cell phones had become a new way of navigating the social complexities of modern life. It has become a way of avoiding the uncomfortable conditions, as we pick up our phone to avoid unwanted attention from others, a way of meeting potential partners, thought sites like Tinder, and a way of getting constant validation by posting online and seeking “likes.”

How to Quit Your Cell Phone Addiction and Be More Present

Choose Real over Virtual Experiences

Make a conscious choice to have real rather than virtual experiences. Instead of checking the internet for information, head to the library and pick up a book. Instead of playing video games, join a team or a chess club. Get out seeing live entertainers, rather than viewing everything online.

You may like the ease and efficiency of doing everything from your cell phone, but this won’t provide you with the best or most meaningful experiences. This will improve your physical and mental health, and reduce addictive patterns of behavior.

Meet Face-to-Face

Whether for business or pleasure, arrange to meet in person rather than relying on the ease of texting or talking on the phone. Replace your cell phone with face to face communication.

If you have news and you know you could see a friend later in the day, resist texting or posting your news on Facebook. Wait until you see your friend, and then tell them your news verbally. This will prevent your verbal and social skills from deteriorating through the overuse of texting to communicate—a big problem for people with computer addiction.

Value the Empty Spaces in Your Day

One of the causes we become dependent on our cell phones is because it is so easy to take them out every time you have an empty space in your day.

An unfortunate consequence of this is that it can feel like a waste of time whenever you aren’t checking your emails when you aren’t engaged in another activity. Yet the empty spaces are important for being comfortable with yourself, and the procedure of just being, which is an essential part of mental wellness. Practicing mindfulness can help.

Set Your Own Limits

Instead of automatically thinking you should have your cell phone to hand at all times, set limits around when you will or will not look at it.

Deliberately leave it out of reach when you would really rather focus on some other part of your experience. You can always return calls or reply to emails later.


What Are Anxiety Disorders in Children?

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Anxiety is a usual and common part of childhood. In most cases, anxiety in children is temporary and may be triggered by a specific stressful event. For example, a young child may experience separation anxiety when starting preschool or kindergarten. Or a child may see a scary movie or learn about a tragic news event and have trouble sleeping.

In some cases, however, anxiety in children can be persistent and intense and can interfere with a child’s daily routines and activities such as going to school, making friends, or sleeping.

Types of Anxiety Disorders in Children

Generalized anxiety disorder- Children who have a generalized anxiety disorder, or GAD, experience constant, excessive, and uncontrollable fears about any number of everyday things such as grades, family issues, performing well in sports, being on time, or even natural disasters. Children with a general anxiety disorder may be more likely to be perfectionists.

Post-traumatic stress disorder- Children can develop post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, after witnessing or experiencing a life-threatening or traumatic event such as a robbery or a car accident. While it’s common to be fearful, worried, or sad after experiencing a frightening event, many children may recover fairly rapidly.

Separation anxiety disorder- Toddlers frequently experience separation anxiety when a parent or caregiver leaves the room. As children get older and attend daycare, preschool or kindergarten, they can experience separation anxiety when they are dropped off by mom or dad. Separation anxiety generally goes away as children become acclimated to their new environment and caregiver or teacher. But even beyond kindergarten, a child can have trouble being separated from a parent and may experience excessive distress or anxiety.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder- Children who have obsessive-compulsive disorder, or OCD, have frequent thoughts that they can’t control called obsessions. They may feel compelled to perform routines and rituals, called compulsions, to try to control their thoughts and ease their anxiety.

Phobias- Children with a phobia have an intense, extreme, and irrational fear of something specific, such as a dog, needles, or the dark. Other common phobias in children contain the fear of thunderstorms, flying, water, heights, and blood. Children with phobias are less likely than adults to be capable to put their fears into proportion or realize that their fears are irrational.


How ADHD and Lack of Motivation Can Be Called Laziness

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Unfortunately, adults and children with ADHD are often labeled as unmotivated, lazy, or even apathetic. These negative labels are unfair and hurtful. Instead of easy laziness or a lack of motivation, this immobility or sluggishness often reflects the impairments in executive function that can be associated with ADHD.

Problems with ADHD and Executive Functions

Executive function deficits affect a person’s capability to get started, organize, and sustain effort on tasks. The individual may even experience a sense of paralysis associated with a task or project—wanting to get started, but not capable to make progress forward in any manner.

This sense of paralysis can quickly lead to feelings of being overwhelmed, procrastination, and avoidance, and ultimately results in problems with productivity. It can also result in negative reactions from others who become confused and frustrated by the inconsistencies in the person with ADHD who is capable to perform well when the task is stimulating and interesting or when it is novel and exciting but does not perform as well when the task is tedious or repetitive.

Even if the person is capable to begin the task, they may have great difficulty staying alert and persisting in this effort. Though they may know what they need to do to get things completed, as hard as they try, they just can’t.


First of all, it is significant to actively engage in treatment for ADHD. Connect with a doctor experienced in treating ADHD, and openly and regularly communicate with him or her about your (or your child’s) symptoms.

ADHD Coping Strategies

  • Set smaller goals
  • Exercising
  • Incorporate physical movement into your day
  • Break down projects into smaller, more manageable chunks
  • Reward yourself (or your child) more immediately for little steps taken towards reaching goals
  • Set aside a short, less overwhelming time period (for example, 10 or 15 minutes) to commit to working on the activity that has you feeling stuck



The Relationship between Sleep and Stress

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If you find that you are stressed and not getting enough sleep, you’re not alone. In a national sleep survey, 40 percent of respondents said they aren’t getting the recommended amount of rest. Many of the stressors we face in modern life, such as traffic jams, hard co-workers, or relationship conflicts, can trigger a fight-or-flight response, and prolonged exposure to this stress without relaxation can result in shorter sleep duration and poorer quality sleep. To improve sleep quality and cope with chronic stress, some strategies are more effective than others.

How Chronic Stress Affects Sleep

When you experience a perceived threat (physical or psychological, real or imagined), your body’s hormonal stress response gets triggered, creating a cascade of physical changes that lead to the release of glucocorticoids like cortisol by the endocrine system. The release of cortisol and other stress hormones creates a burst of energy that permits you to fight or run from real and present danger.

What’s essential to know in this context is that the HPA access also plays an essential role in modulating the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle. Prolonged stress levels have been correlated with HPA access hyperactivity, decreased sleep duration, as well as reduced REM sleep and delta power, leading to poorer quality sleep, impaired memory, poorer mood regulation, which can, in turn, lead to more stress.

Stress Management Sleep Strategies

If your sleep problems are being compounded by the effects of stress, sleep may come easier with the implementation of healthy stress management techniques before bed. Coping with stress takes many forms, and can involve emotional engagement or emotional disengagement.

Healthy coping strategies that decrease emotional avoidance contain meditation and simple breathing exercises, which can decrease stress and tension in the body, lower stress hormone levels, and help sleep come more simply.

Problem-solving can also be a way to decrease stress, but it can be stimulating and should be done earlier in the day rather than before bed.

It is essential to leave enough time for stress management and also enough time to sleep itself. Educate yourself about additional stress management sleep strategies and read more about the benefits of a good night’s sleep to inspire you to figure out a plan to create space in your busy life to decrease your stress before bed.


An Overview of Female Sexual Dysfunction

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Sexual health—and sexual function—depend on a variety of factors. What one person is satisfied with sexually, another finds deeply problematic. The amount of libido that a person has in one relationship may be quite different than the amount of libido they have in another relationship. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as a state of physical, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. It necessitates a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Desire is the experience of being interested in having sex.

  • Orgasm is a time of release. There may be contractions in the vagina or other feelings of dropping over a physical or emotional edge. Some women may experience multiple orgasms, going back and forth from orgasm to plateau.
  • Resolution is when the body returns to its usual, un-aroused state. Blood flow returns to common. Many people feel very relaxed at this time.
  • Excitement is when the body becomes physically aroused. There is an increase in blood flow to the genitals. The nipples and labia may engorge. There is some degree of lubrication. The sensitivity of the genitals increases.
  • Plateau occurs when the body is already excited, but a woman does not yet anticipate an orgasm.


The symptoms of female sexual dysfunction vary depending on which specific type of dysfunction a woman is experiencing.

Desire Phase Difficulties

There are several types of sexual dysfunction that can occur during the desire phase. The most common is decreased sexual desire or loss of sexual desire. This is when a woman has less (or no) interest in having sexual interactions. She may still be able to enjoy those interactions, but she is less likely to initiate sex. This is also referred to as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).



An Overview of Work Anxiety

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Work anxiety refers to stress reason by work that leads to anxiety, or the impact of an anxiety disorder at work. Either way, work anxiety can have negative effects and must be addressed to prevent poor outcomes both for employees and organizations.

Signs of Work Anxiety

  • shaking or trembling
  • dry mouth
  • sweating
  • a pounding/racing heart
  • exaggerated startle reaction
  • feeling jittery
  • tiredness or fatigue
  • feeling like there’s a lump in your throat

Causes of Work Anxiety

Work anxiety may be caused by a variety of characteristics of the work environment. It’s not at all unusual for certain major events to make you nervous or feel temporary moments of anxiety. For example, starting a new job or leaving an old one is sure to make anyone feel skittish. You spend so much time at work that if things aren’t going your way, it can feel overwhelming at times.

  • a workload that is overly high
  • lack of direction on tasks
  • lack of perception of fairness
  • lack of control over the work environment
  • dealing with work conflicts
  • meeting deadlines
  • relationships with coworkers
  • managing staff
  • long working hours
  • having a demanding boss

Effects of Work Anxiety

If you are living with work anxiety, it has probably taken a toll on multiple aspects of your life. Below are some of the most common effects of work anxiety, which can happen both within and outside the workplace:

  • effects on personal life
  • reduced job performance and quality of work
  • effects on relationships with coworkers and superiors
  • effects on your relationship with your romantic partner
  • problems with concentration, fatigue, irritability, reduced productivity

Coping With Work Anxiety

Finally, you may be looking for common tips on how to cope with work anxiety. Know that anxiety at work can be contagious, and try to stay away from people who make you feel worse, as much as possible.


Panic Attacks Can Occur in Your Sleep

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Panic attacks are often experienced as overwhelming feelings of fear and dread. These attacks are often characterized by uncomfortable physical sensations, disturbing thoughts, and difficult emotions. For example, when panic strikes, a person may start off suddenly feeling very nervous and anxious. Somatic sensations, such as sweating, heart palpitations, and chest pain may begin to take hold. Strong emotions combined with troublesome physical sensations may contribute to fears felt by the panic sufferer, such as a fear that the attack will lead to a loss of control over oneself.

Even though panic attack symptoms typically reach a peak within 10 minutes before gradually subsiding, the effects of the attack can impact the person much longer. Many panic attack sufferers frequently describe their symptoms as an upsetting and even downright terrifying experience.

Panic Attack Symptoms

Panic attacks typically start off with feelings of fear, anxiety, and apprehension, accompanied by a combination of 4 or more of the following symptoms:

Heart palpitations or accelerated heart rate

  • Nausea or abdominal pain
  • Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
  • Derealization or depersonalization
  • Fear of losing control or going crazy
  • Fear of dying
  • Feelings of numbness or tingling sensations
  • Chills or hot flushes
  • Excessive sweating
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling of choking
  • Chest pain


Panic attacks are most usually associated with panic disorder but have also been known to occur along with other mental health disorders, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, agoraphobia, and other specific phobias.

Additionally, there are two different types of panic attacks: expected and unexpected. Expected panic attacks are those that are triggered by some type of cue or stimulus in the environment. For example, a person with a fear of heights (acrophobia) may have a panic attack when in an airplane or when on a top floor of a tall building. A person with PTSD may have a panic attack when in an environment that reminds her of the past traumatic event.

Unexpected panic attacks, on the other hand, or those that arise suddenly without any known reason or trigger. Since these attacks happen out-of-the-blue, they can be perceived of as extremely frightening.

Nocturnal Panic Attacks

Panic attack symptoms typically take hold while one is awake, however, it is possible for panic attacks to strike while you are fast asleep. Known as nocturnal panic attacks, these attacks can potentially contribute to sleep disorders and leave you feeling tired throughout your day.

All panic attacks can be perceived of as a frightening experiencing but can be even more terrifying if they startle you out of your sleep. For example, you may wake up due to uncomfortable physical sensations, such as shaking, accelerated heart rate, and chest pain. You may feel confused as to whether you are dreaming or not, feeling a sense of distance from yourself and your sense of reality.


An Overview of Schizoaffective Disorder

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Schizoaffective disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that combines symptoms of psychosis with symptoms of mood disorders. Depending on what type of mood symptoms are present; it is diagnosed as either bipolar type or depressive type.

The prevalence of the schizoaffective disorder in the population is believed to be less than 1 percent, which is less than for schizophrenia or mood disorders. Research suggests that women are slightly more prone while men tend to develop the disorder at a younger age. It is generally first diagnosed between ages 16 and 30 and is rare in children.

Symptoms of the schizoaffective disorder tend to be severe and vary for each individual. They can be broadly categorized into those that fall under depressive symptoms, manic symptoms, and schizophrenia symptoms. Those with bipolar type will experience cycling of depressive and manic symptoms, while those with the depressive type will only experience the depressive symptoms

Depressive Symptoms
Psychological: Sadness, worthlessness, hopelessness, restlessness, lack of energy, loss of interest in usual activities, trouble concentrating, guilt, self-blame, thoughts of death or suicide

Physical: Poor appetite, weight loss or gain, sleeping too much or too little,


Psychological: Risky or self-destructive behavior (e.g., spending sprees, reckless driving, risky sexual practices), euphoria, irritable mood, racing thoughts, grandiose, easily distracted

Physical: Increased energy and/or more active than usual (e.g., at work, socially, sexually), talking more or faster than unusual, reduced need for sleep

Psychotic Symptoms

Psychological: Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, impaired communication, lacking emotion in facial expressions and speech (negative symptoms), low motivation (avolition)

Physical: slow movements or no movement (catatonia), poor personal hygiene

While the psychotic symptoms listed above describe how schizoaffective disorder appears to an outsider, it is also helpful to learn what these symptoms feel like to a person with the disorder.

Disorganized Thinking

If you are experiencing disorganized thinking, you may feel like your thoughts are fuzzy or everything feels disconnected. When you speak, you may not be capable to remember what you were talking about, so it’s hard for people to follow what you say. You may also feel like your thoughts are not within your control.


We don’t know precisely what Reason schizoaffective disorder. However, it is proposed that it can result from a combination of risk factors that affect brain development prenatally and throughout childhood and adolescence. This includes:

  • Psychoactive or psychotropic drug use (e.g., LSD)
  • Viral infections including while in the womb
  • Birth defects
  • Genetics
  • Brain chemistry and structure
  • Life stressors (death in the family, loss of a job, end of the marriage)



About us

Dr. Manish Borasi is Best Psychiatrist in Bhopal. Dr. Manish Borasi is psychiatrist and psychotherapist at Dr. Manish Borasi Serenity Neuropsychiatry Clinic. Dr.Manish Borasi Serenity Neuropsychiatry Clinic offering best psychiatrist and psychotherapist treatment services.

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